Visual Arts Directory
Visual Arts - Review Directory

In European cities and courts, elaborate spectacles were staged to commemorate historic events, sacred feasts, and popular holidays. Royal birthdays, marriages, coronations, funerals, military triumphs, civic dates, and religious holidays were occasions for wealthy patrons to commission important, but temporary, works of art. Produced from ephemeral materials, these festival arts and decorations were significant projects in their time - as important as the surviving architecture and monuments in cities, or the paintings and sculptures now in museums. Although the original works do not survive, the art of festivals can be studied in archival documents and printed works that were made to plan and publicize these events. This digital resource presents a growing collection of original works on the historic, cultural, and socioeconomic context of European festivals, with special focus on visual documentation.

Feasts for the eye and sustenance for the body, ornate architecture and sculptures made of edible materials were significant aspects of festival celebrations. These elaborate banquets and displays of food as works of art were essential events in the festive progress from magnificent entry to final fireworks. There are documentary records of court banquets and street festivals that included small promotional publications as well as illustrated single prints and festival books. Although early serving manuals and rare cookbooks can be seen as domestic science, in fact, they demonstrate how the lore of culinary history and its protocols enhances the iconography of art history, providing additional details on the symbolism of menus, seasonal ingredients, and table arrangements that focused on the complex art and patronage of festivals.